What role can Facebook play in your online marketing campaigns? Are Facebook ads really that important if you’re a small business with a small advertising budget? The answer is YES!
Learn how to use Facebook ads to automate your business. By doing so, you can know exactly how many leads and sales you can expect for your business each day. Determining how to productively layer, filter and retarget your audience to create your perfect ‘custom audience’, will translate to dollar signs for your business as well as help build your list.
Rick Mulready wants you to master Facebook marketing so your business can thrive! Rick has turned 12 years of corporate internet advertising experience into teaching and consulting with entrepreneurs and businesses on their Facebook advertising and marketing strategies. By applying the same strategies used by some of the biggest names on the web, even small businesses can grow with super successful Facebook advertising.
Rick Mulready: Thanks Rich, I’m happy to be here.
Rich: Now Rick, you have become one of the “go to” experts for Facebook marketing. How did that all come about? What drew you to Facebook and sharing your expertise?
Rick: Yeah, you mentioned in your intro that I spent 12 years in the corporate advertising space working for the likes of AOL, Yahoo and companies like that. Towards 2010 time range, I started seeing the writing on the wall, and it was essentially these big brands have minimum advertising spends that businesses need to hit in order to advertise with these big companies and a lot of it is still the same case today. And that minimum advertising spent is pretty hefty, $25,000 usually for these big brands – and it does vary – which really prices out a lot of small businesses because they’re not going to be able to afford that $25,000. This was around the time when Facebook was starting its big rise and small businesses were able to start to build communities on there, and also they were starting to advertise and started using Facebook advertising to grow their business. So because of these sort of two things here, I started to see what was going on on Facebook and because I’ve been in that corporate advertising background, I naturally gravitated to the advertising side of Facebook and I was really enamored by it, so I really dove into it and taught myself as much as I possibly could – how businesses were using Facebook advertising to grow their business while not having these opportunities with these larger brands yet still being super successful with their online advertising. So I just sort of dove into it and have been doing it for the last 4 years.
Rich: That’s great. Now I’ve spoken with a lot of small businesses and one of the things that I hear time and time again is that they’re just fed up with Facebook, saying that they can no longer reach their audience. So the question is, is organic reach dead?
Rick: It kind of is. And Facebook came out themselves at the end of 2013 and said, “if you’re a business, it’s time to pay to play”, and there’s multiple reasons for that. Number one, they’re a public company now – so they need to be making money- and advertising is the way they do that. Another reason is there is 1.2 billion people on Facebook, and all these people are putting stuff out in the news feed that they’re posting to their Facebook page. And so if they didn’t have any way to filter out all those posts that are coming onto Facebook. you would never see any content that you want to see when you log on to flip through your news feed. So, one way to do that is they have the algorithm that’s going around in the background to filter through all this information. But another way to help filter that is to say, “Ok, you know what businesses? If you aren’t going to pay to have your content seen, then less and less people are going to actually see it.” And so over the past year or so – here we are in August – that organic reach has declined. It used to be much, much higher than what it is and it’s now in that – jeez, I hear stories – in that 2-6% range of your fans are actually seeing your content. And so, like I said, Facebook has come out and said, “You know what, if you’re a business it’s time to pay if you want your content seen.” And the way they do that is through Facebook advertising.
Rich: Alright, so that brings up a question. If I’m a business – and by the way, I am a business – but if I’m a business and I’m seeing this 2% return on the posts that I’m putting up for free, admittedly. Free from Facebook’s standpoint but not from mine, I mean, I have to come up with this content – I have to go out and research it, I’ve got to take a picture, I’ve got to be clever, whatever it is – and then I’ve got to post it up there. Is there any point of me actually keeping my Facebook page, or should I just think about not actually taking it down but stopping creating content there and just solely focus on advertising? And if so, then what kind of advertising should I ve thinking about?
Rick: That’s a great question, because so many businesses are asking that question. If you have a page on there and you do have an existing base of fans, it is still smart to build your fanbase. Now, I wouldn’t recommend that necessarily especially for those small businesses out there who have small budgets to work with when they are advertising. Because one of the questions I get all the time is, “Should I spend advertising dollars to get more fans for my page?” And generally my answer for that it is, if you have a larger budget and some extra budget to be working with, yes, it’s still a good strategy to build your fans on your page. If you have a smaller budget then I wouldn’t focus on doing that, I would focus more on letting that happen organically. As far as still focusing on posting to your Facebook page, yeah, you should do that. You should still be trying to engage with your fans, still try to provide good content to them, content that they’re willing to want to be sharing with other people. And that’s a super engaged audience form a sense of if you have not bought these fans from – we’ve all heard the horror stories of “click farms” and all this other stuff – I’m not talking about that. I’m talking about if you have legitimately built a fanbase on your Facebook page who are interested in your business, and you’ve started to build a relationship with them, that is a very good audience to be reaching with Facebook advertising. Things have really changed as we talk about organic reach, but it’s changed in a sense of Facebook now – the role it should play in your marketing strategy for your business – is get people from your Facebook over to your email list or to your website. Because, let’s face it, you don’t own your Facebook page, you don’t own the fans on your Facebook page. But your email list is your email list, your website is your website. So you should be trying to get people from Facebook over to your email list and to your website.
Rich: Alright, so this is a recurring theme that regular listeners know well, that no matter who comes on to talk about social media we ultimately end up talking about list building and, maybe we’ll get to that. But just, once again, the important thing here is you really want to be building your own list. So I just want to kind of talk a little bit more about whether or not we should be paying for “likes”. So you said if the small business has a good enough sized budget, you can certainly spend some of your advertising dollars on just getting “likes” for your page. But what if you’re just starting out? I’m not talking about buying “likes”, like going to Fiverr and buying “likes”, I’m talking about spending money to advertise my page so more people are going to like it. If I’m just getting started – maybe I haven’t paid much attention to Facebook and I have a very small number of fans – is that another time that I should think about spending money just to get “likes”?
Rick: I would rather see people do it in that instance that you’re talking about, Rich. I’d rather see people get “likes” as a secondary benefit from the Facebook ads that they’re running in order to get people over to their emails lists and their website. What do I mean by that? So if you’re running wither a page post ad or an unpublished page post ad, and you’re reaching people who are not already fans of your Facebook page, your d is going to have a “like page” button on the top right of the ad. And the reason that the ad is showing that is because that person that is seeing the ad is not already connected to your Facebook page. So it’s not a like ad, per se, because the goal of your campaign that you’re running is to get those people over to your email list or over to your website. But yet it still serves as an ability to get people to “like” your page, because it has that “like” button.
Rich: So it serves two purposes.
Rick: Yup. So that people who like the page is sort of a secondary benefit of the campaign that you’re running. I would personally go that route if you’re just starting out and don’t have much of a budget to getting going with it. Personally, I’ll be totally honest with you, that’s what I do. And right now, I don’t run ads where I’m trying to build more fans on my page. I let that happen organically as a secondary benefit to the Facebook ads that I’m running for webinars and so forth.
Rich: Alright. So let me just walk through that with perhaps a real-life example to make sure I understand it. Of course, Agents of Change is on my brain right now, so let’s say that I want to promote Agents of Change so I create a little story or post starring Rick Mulready, “Learn More About Facebook, Come to the Agents Of Change Conference”, and I put your face up there and I have some texts there and I basically publish that as a post and I spend advertising dollars maybe based on people within 15 miles of Portland, Maine who like marketing. So if I’m understanding this correctly, if they already like my page – if I’m going to show that ad to everybody whether they like my page or not – the people who like my page already are just going to see the ad with a link to go register.
Rich: And if they don’t, if they haven’t yet liked the Agents Of Change page, they’re going to see 2 things – that link to go register, as well as “like the Agents Of Change on Facebook”.
Rick: That’s correct.
Rich: Ok. Now can we take a step back – because I think I understand this but not everybody does – can you tell us the difference between a page post and an unpublished page post, if I used the right words?
Rick: You did, yeah, very good. Bravo.
Rick: So a page post ad is exactly what you just described. It’s when you do a status update on your Facebook page, then you want to turn that into an ad. And the reason that you would do that, one of the questions I get all the time is “Should I be boosting my post?” You have a little “boost post” button in the right hand corner when you create a status update. I don’t recommend that people do that. If you want to lose a few dollars, go for it. But I generally don’t recommend that people do that, and here’s the reason why. You’re very limited on the targeting capabilities and the budget levels that you can put towards that particular, when you’re boosting that post. You’re very limited on that. Rather, instead create a page post ad out of that particular status update, and then you have full control over what budget you spend and you have all the targeting capabilities behind Facebook when you do that. Now, an unpublished page post ad is something that you can create in Power Editor – which is the browser based Facebook ads tool when you’re creating Facebook ads. And the difference there is when you create an unpublished page post ad – number one – you’re allowed more ad copy, more text above the image, which can be really, really key. You’re also setting up an ad that looks like a status update, yet it’s not actuallyappearing on your Facebook page. Now, why is that a good thing? Well, maybe you’re creating 4, 5, 6 different ads with different target audiences. If these are page post ads, those would be showing up on your Facebook page, you’re basically spamming your fans. By doing an unpublished page post ad, you’re creating an ad that looks like a status update that will run in the newsfeed, yet is not actually appearing on your Facebook page.
Rich: Ok, alright. That definitely explains the difference between those two things. It sounds like there might be advantages to both of them. And you’re saying stay away from the “boost button”.
Rick: I am.
Rich: Which is basically like a shotgun approach because we don’t really have much control over it.
Rich: And it only pushes it out to people who like our page, right? It’s not going to show it to anybody who doesn’t.
Rick: You have 2 options now. You have an option where you can show it to people who are fans of your page and their friends, and then another option where you can apply some targeting. Now, if you apply the targeting, you’re limited to location targeting – so what country or state or zip code or whatever – you can do men and women and you can do an age range, and then it lets you choose – I forget the number – like 6 different interests, which basically means I can target different fan pages on Facebook. And that’s it, that’s all you can do with it. And then from a budget standpoint based on the number of fans that you have on your Facebook page, it gives you set budget levels that you have to choose from. And that’s why I’m saying you’re sort of handcuffed because you don’t have the full targeting capabilities that is truly available with Facebook advertising. And then from a budget perspective, what if you don’t want to spend as much as one of the budget levels in there. And that’s why setting up an actual ad out of that status update will allow you to have full targeting capability that you can choose from, and also whatever budget that you want to spend.
Rich: Right. So the only plus of boost ad that I can see is just the simplicity, but it almost is like Facebook ads with training wheels on. you don’t really have much control over it at all.
Rich: Alright. So I wanted to ask, when we’re looking at our complete online marketing campaigns, what role should Facebook play in that? How do we integrate Facebook with some of the other stuff we’re doing?
Rick: It’s really meant to augment everything else that you’re doing. For a while there, everybody put their whole budget into Facebook marketing and that was the only thing they did. How things have changed on Facebook is really dictated that it should be part, and augment the rest of your marketing plans. Again, the goal these days really should be to get people from Facebook over to your email list or to your website, and really not keeping them on Facebook in any way. So if you’re doing something where some sort of campaign that’s very visually based, for example, Facebook is a great visual platform because people are flipping through, they’re looking for pictures and videos and that sort of thing. So if you’re marketing on there can evolve – because it’s a visual platform – if it can have pictures and images and videos from whatever you’re doing in your business, that is a great opportunity to reach a very targeted audience because of your targeting capabilities on there with that type of content. But that’s not to say that that’s your only platform where you’re marketing. It’s definitely augmenting everything else that you’re doing, but yet again, always going back to the goal should always be getting those people over to your website or over to your email list.
Rich: It’s so funny because two years ago every Facebook expert was saying, “Nobody wants to leave Facebook, and you always have to keep people in Facebook, you need to build out your page, you need to create your custom tabs.” And now it seems like it’s gone the other direction. And the bottom line is you need to bring people back to your website, squeeze page, whatever it may be, so you can bring them down the sales funnel.
Rick: Yeah. And you can still use those custom tabs. I mean, when you’re on your mobile device, you’re not seeing those custom tabs. But they do still have their place, so if you want to be testing out driving Facebook ads to a tab where people are opting into that email list. So yes, you’re keeping them within Facebook but you’re actually keeping them in there to get them over to your email list. Yeah, that’s worth testing out. But yes, the way you described it, Rich, is exactly right. It’s very, very different from the way it was a couple years ago.
Rich: Now Rick, have you done any testing where – because what you just said was interesting – have you done any testing where you tried to build an email list on a Facebook tab versus sending them to your page, and seen which one has a higher conversion rate?
Rick: Yeah, for sure. And it’s going to vary depending of course on what you’re offering and so on. But I have seen instances where Facebook tends to like when you keep that traffic within Facebook, of course. So it will reward you with some lower pricing when you’re keeping that traffic within Facebook. What I mean by keeping that traffic within Facebook, I mean you’re sending them to a custom Facebook tab. Now, when it comes to lower pricing and Facebook ads, it’s really all about the performance of your ad. The better performing that your ad is, the cheaper it’s going to be for you, and Facebook kind of rewards you for that. But yeah, I have seen instances where there is a cheaper conversion and the cost is lower when you keep sending people to that Facebook tab to get them onto your email list. But them other times, I have seen instances where it’s cheaper to actually get them over to a separate landing page that’s outside of Facebook.
Rich: Why would it be cheaper in that latter case?
Rick: Well, because it’s just performing better, meaning it’s converting better for you. So again, Facebook is rewarding you for that better conversion.
Rich: I see. So I think the bottom line is if you get 2 ads that are performing equally as well, you’re going to find that you’re going to get some price savings by keeping them in Facebook. But you’re still getting the benefit of having them join your list and you’re able to market to them directly in their inbox, which tends to be the most effective way to market to people even though they say that they don’t want to get your emails anymore.
Rick: Yeah, exactly. It’s all worth testing out, but yes, exactly.
Rich: Alright, so let’s say that I’m ready to start spending some money on some Facebook ads. How much do I need to spend to be successful? Even though I know you’re going to say “it depends”, try and give me a little more.
Rick: Sure. Well, there’s an easy answer, and there’s a more complicated answer. Let me go through both. The easy answer is “what can you afford?” Like, what is your budget? The fact of the matter is with Facebook ads is that you can be as successful spending $5 a day as you can be spending $50 a day. Now granted, for $50 a day, you’re able to scale that a lot. The audience potential size is going to be larger and the scale there is going to reach a lot larger so you can scale it larger, but it’s all working the same way. So you can still have the same success starting off with a very small budget. So it does depend on what you can actually afford. Now the more complicated answer there is, once you’ve run some campaigns and you’ve spent some money on there, you want to figure out what the value of your customer is to you. So let’s just say that I’ve spent $500 on Facebook ads and I’ve gotten 250 leads – let’s just say I’m driving people to a webinar – so my cost per conversion is $2, because I’ve gotten 250 people to register for my webinar. I have a fraction of those 250 people join my webinar and I end up selling my $100 product to all 250 people. So then you can start to look at, ok I spent $500 to make $2,500.
Rich: I was told there would be no math.
Rick: No math, no talking of math. So you can have real numbers that you can look at and say, “Ok, I’ve done that 2 or 3 times now with my campaigns and doing my webinars and I know now that roughly if I spend x amount of dollars, I’m going to get this much in return. And it’s all about what those conversion rates are. So that is going to give you an exact number of what you can be spending on your Facebook ads. So if that number is – ok, I can spend $1,000 on this campaign and I’m going to double that based on the history that I’ve seen on previous campaigns – so if I want to run this campaign for 10 days, my budget is $1,000. So I know that I can run $100 a day. And that’s really what it comes down to is after you’ve run a couple campaigns you can have a very specific number that you can be running every single day from a budget perspective based on how much you know previously that you’ve spent and how much you’ve brought in as a result.
Rich: Ok, sounds good. Now I know in the Power Editor we can upload our email list or contact database and start showing ads just to those people, or segments within those people perhaps, and friends of those people as well. And this is just a question for… is there exclusion as well? Can we upload a list or two lists and say I want you to send to everybody on this list and exclude anyone that also appears on this other list?
Rick: Yes. For sure. And the cool thing about that is, let’s just say you’re using what they call “website custom audiences” – which is a form of retargeting now – so you place a pixel on your website and then you can set up specific audiences of different people coming into different areas on your website. So let’s just say you want to track people that are coming to the sales page of your Agents Of Change conference. And you’re also tracking people who get to your ‘thank you page’ or basically the conversion page after they have purchased to come to the conference. Well, you can set up an ad campaign where you’re targeting people who got to that sales page but didn’t get to the conversion page, or the ‘thank you page’. So essentially you’re excluding that ‘thank you page’, and you’re only reaching those people who got to the sales page but didn’t actually buy.
Rich: Ok, and that’s definitely one way to do it. But if we hadn’t set up that pixel I’m just wondering – let’s say I stick with the Agents Of Change – so I have an email list that we send out, I can upload that list and start advertising to those people. But I don’t want to annoy the people who have already bought tickets so I also have my list from Eventbrite, and I can upload that list, can I say “show it to everybody on this list, but hide it from everybody who’s on this other list”?
Rick: Yes, absolutely. Now keep in mind, let’s just say you have 1000 people on this other list, Facebook isn’t going to match all 100 of those. So Facebook is looking for those email addresses on your list who are also Facebook users using that same email address.
Rick: So you might be able to match maybe 400, 500, 600 people off of that list, but yes, you are able to exclude people in that way. And you know, you still might have some people who are sort of double seeing your content, but that’s the restriction of the matching of those email addresses.
Rich: Right. Now do you have any advanced tips that you haven’t yet shared? Some double secret probation type tips that you can share with us about targeting on Facebook.
Rick: One thing that I really like to do – and I kind of talked to some different people about this and I get mixed emotions on why we’d want to do this – but I do it and I teach it because it flat out works, you can do “look alike audiences”. So just talking about if you upload the list of conference attendees, say you have 1000 people on that email list and again Facebook is matching – let’s call it 500 people – well you can then create what they call a”look alike audience” out of those 500 people. And the way that that works is because those 500 people are Facebook users, Facebook knows a whole lot about those people. It knows the attributes, it knows from all the data on the Facebook page. And so it can go create a brand new audience for you of other Facebook users who have similar attributes to the people on your buyer list. So now we have a brand new audience. Let’s say these people are just in the United States and here’s my look alike audience. If you use the look alike audience as your target audience and you have your age range and all that other stuff set up, I personally have not seen good results when you’re just targeting the look alike audience, just that. What I like to do personally is to layer in some additional interest targeting on top of that look alike audience. Now basically what I’m tellin Facebook when I do that is I don’t 100% trust your look alike audience. Now when I do that, I see crazy, good results.
Rich: Are you doing this through the Power Editor, by the way?
Rick: Yes. Absolutely. Always. And I’ve had people test this out where just recently I had a conversation with somebody where they were saying,”You know what, I want to test out just targeting this look alike audience.” I said. “Ok, great. Let’s do it. Let’s see how it does.” And a couple days later we came back and it was not performing very well, so I had him layer in additional interest targeting on top of that – and boom – their cost per conversion dove right down to a range that they were very happy with. So that is something that a lot of people aren’t doing out there but I found really great success and knew a ton of people who I’ve taught this to and are seeing great results from it. So target a look alike audience but also layer in some interest targeting on top of that and you’re likely going to see some really good results.
Rich: That sounds like a great idea. So for example for my own company – my day job, flyte new media – I might have our own mailing list I could create a look alike audience on Facebook, and what you’re suggesting is then I probably want to do some additional filters maybe based on age or maybe based on where they are in the world or maybe things that they’re interested in – marketing or entrepreneurship or small business – and then I could market a webinar that I was doing.
Rich: And you think I’m going to get better results. Or your experience has been that I will get better results that way.
Rick: Absolutely. And one thing to note is when you do create a look alike audience, you can only create it one country at a time. And so lets just say you create that US audience for flyte new media, and the country that you’re going to target is the US, because that look alike audience is based on the US, even though that customer list that you’re uploading might have people from all over the world, you can only create one look alike audience at a time or one country. And so something to keep in mind when you are setting up your country targeting, make sure that it matches what the look alike audience how/was created. But yeah, the way that you described it, Rich, is perfect. You have your country set up, you have your age range and then you layer in some additional interest targeting on top of that look alike.
Rich: Well, I’m thinking because one of our clients who does some Facebook advertising with us is a really beautiful inn on the Maine coast, and they could use a look alike audience. They may not get the best results, but then if we tailored in some things based on age and also that they’ve shown some interest in – wedding or marriage or bridal magazine or something like that – BAM! Suddenly we have a perfect audience.
Rick: Absolutely. And just keep in mind that you’re taking a look alike audience – and by the way, the look alike audience are the custom audience that you are basing the look alike audience off from – that has to be at least 100 people. So in order to create a look alike audience out of the custom audience, it has to be 100 people, then you can create the look alike audience. So keep in mind that that audience – let’s just say that audience, the new look alike audience comes out to 2 million people – now when you start layering in those additional targets on top of that, it’s going to take that overall 2 million and potential reach way down. So that’s where you start layering in additional ones so you get to an audience size that you’re comfortable with.
Rich: Makes a lot of sense.
Rick: If you want to cover that really quick, that’s a question we get a lot as far as what should your audience size be for your ads? And if you do ask 5 different Facebook ads people, you’re probably going to get 5 different answers. My experience and what I like to teach – because I’ve seen the most success – is sort of my ceiling, I don’t like to go over that 700 or 800 thousand people. I don’t want to go over that number, and I’ll go as low as just below 1000 people. I’m not afraid to get really, really small with that audience and get really targeted with that. Now keep in mind, if your audience for your ad is really small – we’re talking under 2,000 people – you definitely don’t want to have a big budget on that particular ad because you’d be wasting money on that because it doesn’t take a lot of money to be reaching that small an audience. So I would stay under 700-800 thousand people, and don’t be afraid to get really small with that target audience.
Rich: Well it’s interesting, because living up in Maine where we only have one area code, thinking about targeting people and use the geography, we’re already less than a million people right then. And then all of a sudden you say just to woman and then suddenly you’re down to 200,000 people.
Rick: It’s 207.
Rich: Yes, 207 exactly. Now, do you think the look alikes are the best performing Facebook ads, or do you have another secret one on top of that?
Rick: I see the best results with the website custom audiences.
Rich: Alright, I know we’re running low on time, but can you give us just a little bit of information on that?
Rick: Yeah, so that is when Facebook allows you – you get a pixel from Facebook – to put that pixel on your website. One of the questions I get all the time is “How many times do I need to place that pixel on the website?” You just have to place it once, and that goes in your website’s theme before the closing head tag. If you are non-techie like me and have no idea where that goes in your site, grab the pixel, email it to your web person and let them know where it goes and let them take care of it. Now once that pixel is placed, you can start setting up audiences of people coming to different areas on your website. So let’s just say I want to build an audience of people just coming to my homepage or any page on my website. Or maybe it’s the conference registration page. So I can build audiences of people just coming to those pages and serve ads to them on Facebook. It’s another form of retargeting or remarketing, it works really, really well.
Rich: Now we have started using some retargeting – which for those of you who don’t know and didn’t listen to the interview with Nick Unsworth – retargeting is when people go to a website, they don’t buy anything, and suddenly the pair of boots they were looking at follow them all around the web. We’ve been using some of these techniques in advertising for Agents Of Change and also some of our clients are using them, too. When we use a service like Perfect Audience – and I’m not saying one is better than the other – they will place those ads throughout the web, including Facebook. Have you done any testing, or do you have any reason why you want to do just Facebook, or do you think that a more global approach to retargeting is best?
Rick: Great question. I think a global approach to retargeting is better, however, a lot of people haven’t really gotten to that point where they don’t necessarily know what retargeting is, or the opportunities available to them. So for those people who are advertising on Facebook, my recommendation is just start with the retargeting on Facebook. Get that going and get some results and see how happy you are with those results and then if you are happy with it and you’re like. “You know what, I kind of like this retargeting.” – because it does absolutely work – then you can start using a service like AdRoll or Perfect Audience, where you were taking that retargeting across the internet in addition to what you’re doing on Facebook. But I do like that global approach because then you’re hitting every possible opportunity to be reaching your target customer.
Rich: Alright, that’s a lot of great information. I know alot of people are going to want to dig deeper, Rick. And besides being a the Agents Of Change Conference on Friday, September 26th, where else can we find you online?
Rick: RickMulready.com Best thing to do is just hop on the email list – we’ve been talking alot about email marketing – but that is the best place to get information from me, and get to know me and allow me to buuild a relationship with you. So a lot of good information at the email list right there at RickMulready.com.
Rich: Alright, definitely check that out. And of course, as always, we’re going to have the links Rick mentioned in the show notes, which I will give you the URL for in just a minute. Definitely check out Rick’s stuff, he really knows what he’s talking about and you also might want to check out his podcast, too. Rick, thank you very much, and I look forward to seeing you in about a month or so.
Rick: Yeah, for sure. Thanks alot, Rich, I appreciate it.